Fields of Governance: How Social Forces Shape the Implementation of India’s Basic Services for the Urban Poor Scheme
*Names in bold indicate Presenter
Drawing on data from 110 interviews (with bureaucrats, policymakers, and civil society actors), six focus groups (with 56 slum residents impacted by BSUP housing developments), participant observation, and analysis of official documents, I trace the implementation of BSUP at the city, state, and federal level in order to develop a richer understanding of the state and multi-level urban governance in India. I argue that urban governance capacity in India is less dependent on bureaucratic autonomy, cohesiveness, and rational authority (characteristics earlier identified as crucial to state capacity). Rather, governance capacity is best understood as a negotiated and dynamic process, and policy outcomes are shaped by the balance of forces between multiple government and civil society actors at a given time.