Panel Paper: Accessibility across Transport Modes and Residential Developments in Nairobi

Thursday, July 19, 2018
Building 3, Room 206 (ITAM)

*Names in bold indicate Presenter

Kayleigh B Campbell, The World Bank, James A Rising, London School of Economics, Jacqueline M Klopp, Columbia University and Jacinta Mwikali Mbilo, University of Nairobi

A key goal of transportation planning is to provide people with access to a greater number of opportunities, which depends on both the transport and land use systems. Accessibility measures are gaining attention globally, yet there are few studies that measure accessibility in low-income cities and even fewer that incorporate semi-formal bus systems, also called paratransit. This research draws on rich datasets available for Nairobi to measure and visualize accessibility for walking, paratransit, and driving and to compare levels of access to health facilities across types of residential development. As expected, we find that accessibility is highest for driving, then paratransit, then walking and there are high levels near the Central Business District (CBD). We also find significant variation in accessibility across residential developments with the wealthiest areas having very low levels of access for each mode and the poor areas having comparatively better walking access to health facilities. Controlling for distance from the CBD, two kinds of residential development stand out: large homes in gated communities, which have very low access for all three modes, and the residential type with a medium low level of income, characterized in part by tenement apartment buildings, which has significantly higher access than other residential types. Because car ownership rates are low and the majority of trips are by walking or paratransit, it is important to understand how the relationships between transportation, land use, and housing contribute to spatial inequalities.