Poster Paper: Impact of Education Policies on Enrolment and Secondary School Completion of Girls in India

Saturday, November 10, 2018
Exhibit Hall C - Exhibit Level (Marriott Wardman Park)

*Names in bold indicate Presenter

Sangeeta Chatterji, Johns Hopkins University

Impact of education policies on enrolment and secondary school completion of girls in India


While there has been an increase in enrolment rates for both boys and girls in India, the proportion of out of school children at higher ages continues to be substantial, especially for girl children. The cost of schooling is also substantial despite numerous policy initiatives to provide free elementary education. Under the Sarva Shikshan Abiyan (SSA) and the Right to Education Act, 2009 (RTE), India’s two flagship schemes for elementary education, government schools are supposed to provide tuition free elementary education to children aged 6-14 years. Additionally, girls, Schedule Caste and Schedule Tribe (SC/ST) children and children who live in households below the poverty line are provided free uniforms. Girls are also provided free textbooks. Private schools that receive government funds are also mandated to provide tuition free elementary education. This study seeks to examine the impact of government aid/subsidies on enrolment of girls between the ages of 10-21 years, when girls are most likely to drop out of school. This study also assesses the effect of government aid on the completion of secondary school for girls in India.


I will use data from two waves of the India Human Development Survey (IHDS). The IHDS is a nationally representative, two-wave panel survey (2005-06 & 2011-12) conducted in all states and union territories in India apart from the small island territories of Andaman Nicobar and Lakshadweep. The sample for the current study is limited to 15,000 girls aged 10-21 years for whom information is available in both IHDS-I and IHDS-II. The analysis for enrolment will be restricted to girls aged 10-19 years as children normatively complete secondary school at 18 years. The analysis for completion of secondary school will be restricted to girls aged 19-21 years.

The independent variable is government aid which is the sum of tuition, scholarship, free books, uniforms provided to each child annually. The first binary dependent variable measures whether the child is enrolled in school. The second binary dependent variable measures whether the child has completed secondary school.

I will use linear probability model (LPM) regression to test the association between government aid and child’s enrollment in school and child’s completion of secondary school. The analyses will include controls for a variety of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of individuals and families. Several individual, family, and contextual variables will also be considered as potential moderators in these analyses. The Gender Equity Index for various states will be obtained from the Human Development Report for India and will be also be tested as a moderator.


These analyses will contribute to our understanding of both the uptake and impact of government aid in education to help improve girls’ access to quality education and reduce gender based gaps in education in India.