Measuring Policy Implementation: Sustainable Procurement Policy in Local Governments
*Names in bold indicate Presenter
We draw on transaction cost economics, population ecology, and the resource-based view of the organization, along with a principal component analysis to select survey questions and data items for inclusion in the composite index that encompass the following dimensions of the extent or level of SPP implementation: breadth and scope of SPP across city departments and product categories, embeddedness of environmental sustainability practices in procurement processes (e.g., routine/less complex versus non-routine/more complex purchases, inclusion of environmental sustainability criteria in technical specifications), the intensity of implementation (e.g., the inclusion of life cycle costs and greenhouse gas emissions reductions and the use of ecolabels as criteria in purchasing decisions), and engagement and coordination with vendors in the supply chain. We evaluate each data item’s contribution to face validity, unidimensionality, specificity, and variance in appraising SPP implementation as a construct. We examine the empirical relationships among data items, score the index—including weighting and aggregation—and validate it. Validation of the proposed index includes robustness and sensitivity analyses, such as item analyses to assess the extent to which the index is related to individual items that are included in it and regression-based uncertainty analyses to assess how well the index predicts related measures. The development of a reliable and valid measure for the implementation of SPP across cities is a critical first step for understanding the emergence, evolution and effects of environmentally sustainable public procurement.