Hacking the Bureaucracy: Policymaking in the Age of the Smart City
*Names in bold indicate Presenter
In order to investigate to what extent the introduction of an innovative technology affects the policy process, policy process models are applied to determine if current understanding of the policy process captures the dynamics of a period of rapid technological change. For the purposes of this paper, privately owned shared mobility services are used to represent an application of a novel technology. Shared mobility is predicted to have had effect on the policy making process and is relevant to understanding the future of policy making in an age of rapid technological change. Three public policy process models are tested: (Kingdon 1988) Multiple Streams Approach; Punctuated equilibrium model of policy change (Baumgartner and Jones 1991, 1993); Advocacy Coalitions (Sabatier 1988, 1991; Sabatier and Jenkins-Smith 1993). These three models were chosen after a review of literature of relevant policy process papers. As the introduction of these “shared mobility” services manifested as an external ‘shock’ to many municipalities, the process does most closely follow punctuated equilibrium theory. However, based on preliminary findings none of the policy process models take into account an unexpected external technological change prompting quick turnaround in policy creation. Therefore, the findings illuminate both gaps in the existing theories and identify what has actually happened, what is happening, and what, if anything, has changed over time since the introduction of the ride hailing platforms to bikeshare to dockless devices.